The first question about homeopathy is this: Can serially agitated high dilutes (SADs), which are the constituent solutions used in homeopathic remedies, be identified from their liquid vehicles?
Although it does not conclusively rebut the placebo accusation, if we can see a difference in SADs within the water from whence they came, this in itself suggests that there are physical attributes in homeopathic medicine that may affect living organisms.
Through supramolecular chemistry we have been given a look into what the homeopathic remedy is structurally. The homeopathic remedy is not a chemical compound, it is a molecular complex.
Through the action of van der Waal forces, hydrogen bonding within aqueous solutions creates polymer like structures, akin to ice crystals, that mimic the the shape and function of the mother susbtance. These structures were seen by early chemists such as Sir Humphry Davy and Michael Farraday and referred to as “hydrates,” and basically regarded as curiosities.
In the 1940’s Marcus Powell named a particular class of hydrates “clathrates,” which means lattice or cage, because of their cagelike structure.
Using the terminolgy of host guest chemsitry, Greek Nuclear phsyicist George Anagnostatos has gone further to describe how the homeopathic remedy is populated with these clathrates.
Using beta scintillation French phsyicists Yves Lasgne and Rolland Conte have recorded the radiant output of the homeopathic medium, described in their seminal work, “Theory of High Dilutions.”
A review of the literature spanning a century reveals reports of many ways to answer the question, and the conclusion is that there are indeed many ways by which to make the identification. The effects of high dilutes have been seen on bacterial, zoological and botanical subjects. Physical measures have been made. Biochemistry has been employed. The reports have been positive enough to suggest that although the molecular structure of SADs is not well understood, they do differ from their liquid solvent vehicles, have a dynamic action and subsequently suggest specificity in the sub atomic field.
- 1902 P.Jousset investigated the effects of silver nitrate up to 25c on mycelium. He found significant results in their weights, finding that the silver nitrate stunted growth. (reported by Gabriel Bertrand) “The Extraordinary Sensitiveness of Aspergillus
Niger to Manganese.” Comptes Rendus Academie des Science; 154, 616, 1912
- 1906 Boericke and Tafel made an unusual observation of the emanations from a high dilute of radium bromide (30c), to photograph a picture of the outline of a key. (Tafel’s Jottings, 1906.)
- 1923 Lilli Kolisko, Physical and Physiological Demonstration of the Effect of the Smallest Entities. Der Kommende Tag, A-G Verlag, Stuttgart, 1923 pp. 1-10
- 1923 N.P. Krawkow- Demonstrated 15c histamine increased the blood flow in isolated rabbit ears 25% and using 12c microdoses of adrenaline, strychnine, histamine and quinine was able to affect the change of pigmentation in the isolated skins of frogs. Controls were used. “Beyond the Boundary of Sensibility of Living Protoplasm” Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Experimntalle Medizin, 34 pp.279-306
- 1925 G. Stearns & M. Stark reported the action of microdilutes on fruit fly tumors. In this fascinating study we see that microdilutes actually altered the genetics of their subjects. A genetically determined tendency to tumor formation ceased to exist after the administration of a microdilution of the tumor itself (isopathy). Controls were used. Other microdilutes were used to no effect. “Experiments with Homeopathic Potentized Substances Given to Dropsophilia Melanogaster with Hereditary Tumors”, The Homeopathic Recorder, 40.
- 1925 G. Stearns tested microdilutions of salt on guinea pigs and demonstrated adverse affects from 30c to 1000c sodium chloride. He noted loss of appetite, aversion for bread, loss of weight, their young poorly nourished and scrawny, less active, indifferent, hair less glossy, rough, untidy, eyes watery, lack luster. And homeopaths brag that their “remedies” (which are actually legal drugs) can do no harm! There were 16 female control animals, and they all became pregnant, whereas only 31% of the 48 female experimental animals became pregnant. At the end of five months over half, 55% of the experimental animals were dead compared to only 35% of the control animals “Experimental Data on One of the Fundamental Claims in Homeopathy”, The Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy, 18.
- 1927 Karl Konig used microdilutes to experiment on frogs and fungi. He discovered that by using dilutions of of lead and silver nitrate ranging from 1 to 15c he could cause a premature metamorphosis in Rana fusca (common frog tadpoles) or kill them or the fungus in the water. Once again here we see that homeopathic drugs can have negative organic affects. Controls were used and the sinusoidal curve that we see in many
experiments of diverse measures is first noted here. “On the Effect of Extremely Diluted (“Homeopathic”) Metal Salt Solutions on the Development and Growth of Tadpoles. Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Experimentalle Medizin, 34, pp. 279-306
- 1928 JUNKER, Hermann The Effect of Extreme DIlutions on Microorganisms Phluger’s Archiv fur die Gesamte Physiologie, 219, pp 647-672, 1928
- 1929 Vladimir Vondracek repeated Konig’s work, and instead of lead and silver nitrate used gold chloride and a different species of frog. At 12c he also reported a significant increase in the mortality of tadpoles, and also obtained a repetition of the sinusoidal curve. “The Mortality of Tadpoles in Ultra Solutions” Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Experimentelle Medizin. 66 pp. 533-538
- 1930 Persson, WM enzymes, The Principles of Catalysis in Biochemistry and Homeopathy, J Am. Inst. Hom. 23, pp 1055-1089
- 1932 George Russell Henshaw discovered a method for influencing serum flocculation in rabbits. Using Bryonia alba and Baptista tinctoria he showed a reaction in some of his subjects “A New Method of Determining the Indicated Remedy by a Flocculation Test of the Serum The Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy, 25
- 1932 Joseph Roy The Experimental Justification of the Homeopathic Dilution, Le Bulletin Medical, 46, pp. 528-531, 1932
- 1936 Boyd, WIlliam Research on Low Potencies of Homeopathy, London, Heinemann
- 1938 Pierre Narodetzki, On the Establishment of a Technique for Studying Homeopathic Doses. Thesis. University of
- 1938 Perrson, WM enzymes, Effeats of Very Small Amounts of Medicamentws and Chemicals on Urease, Diastase and Trypsin, Archives Internatales de Pharmodynamie et de Therapie, 46, pp. 249-267
- 1941 PATTERSON & BOYD Potency Action – – A Preliminary Study of the Alteration of the Schick Test by a Homeopathic Potency, The British Homeopathic Journal 31, pp. 301-309
- 1941 Boyd, W.E. The action of microdoses of mercuric chloride on diastase Br. Hom J 31:1-28
- 1941 Heintz used UV spectra conductivity to make measurements and IR analysis of high dilutes. Physikalische Wirkungen hochverdunnter potenzierter Substanzen Naturwissenchaften 29:713-25
- 1942 Boyd, W.E. The application of a new biologic heart rate recorder to the study of the action on the frog ehart of small doses of Crataegus, DIgitalis, Strophanthus gratus and of traces doses of Strophanthus sarmentosus Br. Hom J 43:11-23
- 1946 Boyd, W.E. “An investigation regarding the aciton on diastase of microdoses of mercuric chloride when prepared with and without mechanical shock” Br. Hom J 36:214-23
- 1951 J. Jarricot showed that veratrine sulfate 30c could decrease muscle contraction in frogs, and that Iberis amara in dilutions of 18c to 118c could slow the heart beat of turtles. The work appeared to be well controlled. “The Infinitessimals of Homeopathic Physicians Editions des Laboratoires P.H.R,.
Lyon 23. 1952 Gay-Boiron , galvonmeter, A Study of the Physics of Dynamization, Edition des Laboratories P.H.R.,
- 1953 Gay/Boiron, galvonometer,)A Physical Demonstration of the Real Existence of the Homeopathic Remedy,Edition des Laboratories P.H.R., Lyon France
- 1954 Boyd, W.E. enzymes, “Biochemical and biological evidence of the activity of high potencies” British Homeopathic Journal 44:6-44
- 1964 Heintz, polarography, Les “maximums”
del la Polarographie et la force electromotrice de mouvement C.R. Seances Academy Sience 1962
- 1966 Smith & Boericke, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Modern instrumentaion for the evaluation of homeopathic drug structure, Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy
- 1966 Brucato & Stephenson, 50 KV Alternating Current Dielectric Tester, Dielectric strength testing of homeopathic dilutions of HgCl2, Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy
- 1968 Smith & Boericke, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Changes caused by succussion on N.M.R. patterns and bioassay of bradykinin triacetate (BKTA) succussion and dilutions, J Am Inst Hom 1968: 61 197-212
- 1972 Heintz, electronic measures, La mesure de l’action de dilutions successives a l’aide, Ann Hom Fr 14:275-84
- 1975 Young, Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of succussed solutions J Am Inst Hom 68:8-16
- 1975 Luu-D-Vinh, Raman-Laser spectroscopy, Etude des dilutions homeopathiques par effet Raman -Laser
- 1977 NOIRET and CLAUDE, Enterobacter cloacae, Lysteria monocytogenes, Streptoccocus bovis, Activitie des diverse dilutions homeopathiques de Cuprum sulfuricum sur quelques souches microbiennes, Ann Hom Fr 19:91-109
- 1979 Kumar and Jussal, surface tension measurements, A hypothesis on the nature of homeopathic potencies, Br Homeopathic Journal 68: 197-204
- 1980 Boiron & Luu-D-Vinh, Raman Laser spectroscopy, Etude de l’actionde la chaleur sur les dilutions hahnemanniennes par spectrometrie raman. Ann Hom Fr 22 (2):113-18
- 1982 Jussal, Meera, Dua, & Mishra, measured capacitance, resistance and dielectric dispersion, H-ion concentrations, electrode pontetials using an LCR bridge, time domain reflectance spectroscopy, digital pH meter, and nonpolarising electrodes. Physical effects on the suspending medium by compounds asymptotically infinite dilutions, Hahnemannian Gleanings, 3: 114-120
- 1983 Jussal, Meera, & Dua Dielectric dispersion of weak alcoholic solutions of some drugs at high frequencies using Time Domain Spectroscopy Hahnemannian Gleanings, 8: 358-36638. 1983 Jenkins & Jones yeast and wheat seedlings, Comparison of wheat and yeast as in vitro models for investigating homeopathic medicines. British Homeopathic Journal, 72, 3: 143-14739. 1983 Sacks, A.D. nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy,
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy of homeopathic remedies J. Holist. Med. 5, 2: 172-177
- 1988 De Guidice, E. Preparata, G. Vitello, G. Water as a free electric
dipole laser Phys. Rev. Lett. 61: 1085-1088
- 1988 Davenas, E., F. Beauvais, J. Arnara, M. Oberbaum, B. Robinzon, A. Miadonna, A. Tedeschi, B. Pomeranz, P. Fortner, P. Belon, J. Sainte-Laudy, B. Poitevin & J. Benveniste (1988) “Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE”, Nature, 333(6176):816-18. 42. 1990 Weingartner, O. Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR features that relate to homeopathic Sulfur potencies. Berlin, J. Res. Hom. 1, 1:61-68
- 1992 Demangeat, L., Demangeat, C., Gries, P.,Poitevin, B., Constanstinesco,A. Nuclear magnetic resonance. In this study vortexed potencies of Silicea in a concentration of 1.66X 10-5 to 1.66x 10-29 moll Silicea in 0.9% NaCl were investigate by means of NMR. Special attention was to the relaxation times T1 and T2 of the hydrogen protons Modifications des temps de relaxation RMN a 4 MHz des protons du solvant dans les tres hatures diltuions
salines de silice/lactose
- 1994 Shui-Yin Lo, photo microscopy, (see pictures of Ice Electric, or “homeopathic” crystals below) In this unusual and controversial experiment, the Lo team, according to Dana Ullman, used an still yet unknown technique to actually photograph hydrogen bonding in water, revealing the suggestion that homeopathic drugs are a type of liquid crystal “Anomalous State of Ice,” Modern Physics Letters B, 10,19(1996):909-919. See also, “Physical Properties of Water with IE Structures,” Modern Physics Letters B, 10, 19(1996) : 921-930.
- 1996 Conte, Berliocchi, Lasgne and Vernot, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, beta scintillation, In this amazing little book this interdisciplinary French team presents the first nuclear theory for homeopathic drugs. According to the authors when matters disappears by dilution and is potentized by succussion, it leaves the opposite of the well known super dense black hole, what the authors call a WHITE HOLE and discuss a new atomic particle, the HYPERPROTON. This investigation they believe reveals the first model for the drive of animated matter. In this report they evidence the emission of Beta radiation from homeopathic drugs. Theory of High Dilutions, Polytechnica,
- 1997 VAN WIJK and WIEGANT, Using a step down arsenite treatment with 100M or 300M arsenite followed by an incubation of rat liver cells with lower concentrations of 1-10M dilutions, cells were shown to exhibit increased sensitivities to low concentrations of sodium arsenite. There was an additional increase in the synthesis of protector proteins when low concentrations of arsenite were applied to arsenite pretreated cells. Stimulation of cellular defence of stressed liver cells by subharmful doses of toxicants HomInt R&D Newsletter, 1:/1997: 12-14
- 1999 Vittorio Elia and Marcella Niccoli, thermography, “Thermodynamics of Extremely Diluted Aqueous Solutions,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, June, 827:241-248. 48. 2001 Geckeler, Kurt andSamal, Shashadhar at the Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology in South Korea discovered fullerenes, football-shaped buckyball molecules, formed aggregates in solution, and when diluted, the size of the fullerene particles increased. Cyclodextrin molecules behaved the same way. So did the organic molecule sodium guanosine monophosphate, DNA and sodium chloride. Dilution made molecules cluster five to 10 times bigger than those in the original solutions. Growth was not linear, and depended on the original concentration. Geckeler and Samal found that the more dilute the solution inthebeginning, the larger the aggregates become, and only worked in polar solvents like water, in which one end of the molecule has a pronounced positive charge while the other end is negative. Chemical Communications, 2001, page 2224; there is no volume numberNewScientist.com http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn1532
- 2003 Bell I., Lewis D., Brooks A., Lewis S., Schwartz G. Gas Discharge Visualization Evaluation of Ultramolecular Doses of Homeopathic Medicines Under Blinded, Controlled Conditions. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Volume 9, Number 1, 2003, pp. 25-38.
- 2004 Belon, P., J. Cumps, M. Ennis, P.F. Mannaioni, M. Roberfroid, J. Sainte-Laudy, & F.A. Wiegant (2004) “Histamine dilutions modulate basophil activation”, Inflammation Research, 53(5):181-8.